This book is an account of the research, development and future prospects of the Sahiwal cattle in Kenya. The development of a stable local breed started in the early 1940’s when Sahiwal bulls were imported from Pakistan and India for continual backcrossing with the indigenous Zebu cattle. Presently, the developed Sahiwal breed has stabilized and is widely utilised in the medium to low production systems. This work reviews critical concepts that are important in genetic improvement and utilization of Sahiwal cattle such as genetic basis for selection, quantitative traits, reproductive management and the breed standards in Kenya, Pakistan and India. The book categorically reviews past performance and genetic parameters of Sahiwal cattle in Kenya with more emphasize on the National Sahiwal Stud (NSS) where selection and culling decisions were made. It proposes the need to move from the currently closed nucleus breeding scheme at the NSS which offers little options for diverse selection to an open nucleus breeding scheme (ONBS). Transiting to an ONBS would allow for more rapid genetic improvement within the NSS and thus maintain inbreeding and genetic variability at desirable levels.