Research has shown that African American grandparents are assuming the roles of both parents and grandparents for their grandchildren in the absence of their own biological children. Some of the circumstances surrounding grandparents? assuming the role of parent include grandparents? sense of responsibility, parents? neglect of the grandchild?s needs, sexual abuse of the child by a parent, parents? need to work, parents? need for a break, economic problems, inadequate housing, and teenage pregnancy. Others are drug-addiction or alcohol problems, incarceration, divorce, inadequate parenting skills, and health problems such as AIDS or physical disability, mental illness, and parent death. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe the symbiotic caregiving of African American custodial grandparents (i.e., grandmothers) and their grandchildren. This comprehensive study looked at the Symbiotic caregiving relationship that exists between these duos. Furthermore, it gives insight into the reverse and reciprocal relationship where grandparents feel a sense of responsibility and attachment to their grandchildren and vice versa.