Many reports and studies point to the fact that an Islamist movement is on the rise in Bangladesh after the 9/11 incident. These reports and studies portray the Islamist movement as closely linked with terrorism and devoid of any historical roots. Contrary to this view, this book argues that the Islamist movement is not an unprecedented event but historically linked with a broader militia movement in Bangladesh. Since its inception, the country is dealing not only with the Islamist movement but also with two other types of militia movement almost simultaneously – leftwing and ethnic. Having identified these three types, this book defines the militia movement in terms of five analytical categories – ideology, motivation, mobilization, organization, and ritual – following Freilich and others. It analyzes the Bangladesh militia movement in terms of these five dimensions, providing empirical data to show how the contemporary militias are carrying forward the legacy of their historical forerunners. This book concludes with policy recommendations on how informed decisions can be made to effectively deal with the militia issue in Bangladesh.