This book is a report on a study which aimed to explore different opinions about the impact of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) on accessibility of healthcare for the rural population in two pilot counties of Fujian province in China. The study was a mixed method study based on key informant interviews, semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, the participatory matrix ranking method as well as hospital utilisation statistics. The NCMS, which was implemented in China in 2003, is the most recent form of a rural health insurance scheme. It is voluntary and aims to protect rural people from poverty due to illness by reducing out of pocket payments and decreasing catastrophic expenditures. Furthermore, it intends to establish a well managed, well functioning and easily accessible health care system for rural people. The book shows results regarding the structure of the NCMS, the variety of personal circumstances of rural residents, "physical" accessibility, "economical" accessibility, changes in hospital utilisation between 2000 and 2006, and the wishes and the willingness of the rural population to improve the system for the future.