Deprivation of liberty entails a moral duty of care. Thus every state has a duty to protect the human rights of its prisoners. Some people take prisons as places where prisoners or detained persons are treated in a brutal way so as to pay for what they have done or charged with. But this is not the case; in modern time imprisonment the sentence of deprivation of liberty in itself is the core punitive sanction; conditions and treatment while in prison should not be used as additional punishment. Being a prisoner doesn’t mean losing personality which in return means they are entitled to enjoy all human rights except those restricted by law. Furthermore, in some countries, for various reasons, several individuals are in prison by being wrongfully convicted. Therefore; maltreatment of prisoners could results in the infringement of the rights of innocent individuals. Moreover, according to different researches rehabilitation will be successful when the rights of prisoners are sheltered. Even if these are justifications for protection of the rights of prisoners still in countries like Ethiopia violation of the rights of prisoners widely exist. This book shows the way forward.