This work examines the relations of the Ottoman state with other actors of the mining sector in the last decades of the empire. In the nineteenth century, new regulations of the state liberalized the mining business. In a few decades, foreigners dominated the sector because of their financial and technological superiorities, and started to exploit Ottoman resources, leaving a small share to the treasury. This disturbed Ottoman society and government, and the administrators sought opportunities to increase Ottoman interests. Though there were certain efforts to restrain foreigners, the pressure of the foreign states on the Ottoman government limited these efforts. The only way to better benefit from the mines was to deploy local producers. Yet, the Ottoman private sector could not compete with the foreigners. Realizing that Ottoman citizens took concessions for reselling instead of operating mines, the government tried to resist against foreign capital by encouraging domestic joint stock mining companiesgranting concessions to the bureaucrats and ameliorating the mines operated by the government. However,the Ottoman share in the mining production remained limited.