The Paniyan of Nilgiris, still continue to be deprived of adequate access to the basic needs of life such as health, sanitation, education, proper housing and employment. The Government works strenuously to bring out a society based on equality and justice, but still it is a challenge ahead to ameliorate the socio-economic problems that are deeply rooted among the Paniyan. The plans, programs and developmental initiatives implemented for Paniyan can not be viewed as comprehensive one. Therefore, a multipronged approach and interventions are required to address the concerns pertaining to the development of the Paniyan, whose daily living is still a ‘confront’. The present study “Paniyan of Nilgiris - A Socio Economic Profile” with concerted focus may facilitate for the development of the Paniyan Tribe of Nilgiris and help to improve their existing living status on par with the rest of the people of India.