This book is about the concept of People of God in the OT in late Academic Theology and in Liberation Theology as evaluated by the Lutheran Hermeneutics has developed from the personal experience of its author with the confrontation with several nuances of the concept of People of God in theological movements of his country. By “late Academic Theology” is meant the movement in which a more biblical accent on theological themes is emphasized and some aspects of the pure liberalism are rejected. The late Academic Biblical Theology is represented in this study by the analysis of the concept of People of God in the works of Walther Eichrodt. By “Liberation Theology” is understood the religious movement that has had a significant growth especially in the last two decades in Latin America, “doing” theology with different hermeneutical approaches from those of the confessional Lutheran theology. The concept of People of God from the point of view of the Liberation Theology will be seen in the works of Gustavo Gutiérrez, considered one of its most exegetical theologians. The concept of "People of God" in these theologians will be evaluated by confessional Lutheran Hermeneutics.