This is a research study of the anthropology of policy focusing on welfare reform in general and charitable choice in particular. The study begins with the notion that policies work as instruments of governance and consequently have social and political implications. These policies are examined by exploring the manner in which Catholic Charities and policy makers in Florida are responding to the charitable choice mandate and the faith-based initiative and how their views are shaping local policies. The study is framed within anthropological principles pertaining to economic, humanistic and philosophical tenets. The study provides a historical background of poverty, the development of the welfare state in the United States as well as some of the social, economic, and political factors that shape social policies. Study findings show that while there is increased convergence between the state and faith-based organizations, there is some hesitancy on the part of religious organizations to assume full responsibility for the poor.