The genesis of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) in 1993 marked the emergence of a non-state forest governance in promoting wise uses of forest resources. Nonetheless, the FSC certification has been perceived by some governments to threaten their national timber industries. As a response, some governments created their own certification schemes with the view to compete with the FSC. This book first oulines the development of the Indonesian Ecolabeling Institute (LEI) and the Malaysian Timber Certification Council (MTCC). However,the national schemes then opted to pursue different paths; The LEI has converged with the FSC, while the MTCC has continued to oppose the FSC. This book analyses the different political directions of the national schemes from the early establishment until the mid of 2005.