The Helsinki Memorandum of Understanding in 2005 between the Government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement has ended ethnic conflict in Aceh. Autonomy is important because it may serve as a means of recognizing cultural, religious and linguistic diversity and identity, while at the same time maintaining unity of the State, and also as conflict prevention, avoiding succession and a step to independent statehood. This book provides an overview on how the process and pattern of ethnic conflict settlement in Aceh based on the inclusion of the right to democracy into the national legal framework. The main tool for analyzing such phenomena is human rights both as international norms and universal concept. The analysis and overview on the peace process in Aceh which internationally perceived as one of the most succes implementation of autonomy based on ethnicity will contribute significantly in providing knowledge and comparative data or information about autonomy-based approach for ethnic conflict settlement for every researcher, student, government, politician, human right activist, and everyone who interested in human rights, law and peace studies.