The world has been changing markedly from the physical capital based economy to human capital based economy. Extensive literature is found where the studies have tried to find a link between the educational attainment and process of growth. The Eleventh Plan of India (2007-12) places the highest priority on education as a central instrument for achieving rapid and inclusive growth. In spite of committing to ensure free and compulsory education for the children belonging in the age group of 5-14 years within 10 years from the date of commencement of Indian Constitution (1950), the question naturally arises as – why the goals still remains an elusive subject in India, which is basically discussed in the book. The study is carried out to identify and measure the nature and extent of educational backwardness in India. Special reference has been given to the state of West Bengal and one of its backward district, namely, Uttar Dinajpur. Literacy development and achievement of elementary education have mainly been emphasized. It is expected that the book will be beneficial for the policy makers, educationists and young researches in the specified field.