Shortly after independence, many Mexican politicians, especially regional leaders, began to call for the establishment of a federal republic. Many of the strongest of these voices came from the province of Zacatecas, where supporters of federalism maintained a dominant influence over state politics throughout the first federal republic (1824-1835). Throughout this period, Zacatecas greatly benefited from the implementation of federalism, as it provided the state with an unprecedented level of political, economic, and social growth due to the state government's ability to address local problems from a local point of view without interference from the central government. Consequently, the general prosperity in Zacatecas allowed the state government to attain a powerful and influential position over Mexico's national politics, particularly with that state’s leadership in the civil war of 1832 and its position as the final defender of the first federal republic after the central government abandoned federalism in 1835. This work provides a case study of how federalism affected the state of Zacatecas, as well as how the state of Zacatecas affected federalism.