The main objective of the present study is to inspect the role of self-esteem, as an affective variable, in the English language listening comprehension ability of Iranian EFL students. As will be discussed in the next chapter, listening is the most important and the most utilized skill (Carter and Nunan, 2001). Feyten (1991) states that forty five percent of daily life communication is spent in listening; so it can be an important key to language learning. This study, also, wants to see if there is any relationship between self-esteem and the English listening comprehension scores of male and female foreign language learners separately. This relationship will be first investigated for the whole sample and then for males and females separately. Therefore if there is any relationship between these two factors, positive or negative, self-esteem can be regarded as predictor of the English language listening comprehension of EFL students.