There has been a major shift within macroeconomic policy over the past two decades in terms of the relative importance given in monetary policy and fiscal policy. In most cases monetary policy has gained importance whereas fiscal policy is rarely mentioned. This book, therefore, provides new insights into the field of economics. The relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policies on macroeconomic management in Tanzania for the period 1990 to 2009 is analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The empirical analysis should help shed some light into monetary and fiscal policies and their impact on macroeconomic management in Tanzania, and should be specifically useful to economists from developed and developing countries. It is also likely to be of interest to policy makers and development practitioners in governments, central banks, and international financial institutions.