Nigeria is a federal republic. However, the way natural resources are controlled and managed negates the cardinal principle of true federalism. This book examines the federal nature of Nigeria alongside its control of natural resources. It attempts a comprehensive analysis of the laws which vest the ownership and control of natural resources in the Federal Government and finds that they contradict the federal structure of Nigeria as a nation. The book answers the question: who has the right to control natural resources in a federation like Nigeria after it examines carefully how natural resources are controlled and managed in similar federal jurisdictions. The book concludes that the restiveness and environmental degradation in the oil bearing States of Nigeria are the result of failure to implement the constitutional provision of federalism in resource control. This book will serve as a useful tool to oil bearing States, the Government and policy makers. No doubt it will also be a veritable companion to law students, researchers, academics and lawyers.