For the evolution of social behaviour, communication has an important implication. Living in a structured social system is common in many species and involves costs, benefits and the ability to communicate with group members. Members of a group are often spatial separated and to coordinate movements and maintain social bonds between members acoustic communication is central. In this book, we tried to understand the role of acoustic communication in African lions (Panthera leo). We were interest to find out which were the features that characterized female and male lion roars and roars of different prides. Additionally, if lion roars had individual features, and which parameters characterized them. This book is a preliminary study into the acoustic communication of lions that could be used as a guideline for future research in this field. Future studies into the acoustic communication could improve the understanding of the evolution of social behaviour.