The attention on corporate governance, and the role played by it within the companies, has been increasing significantly in the recent years due to the numerous financial statement frauds that occurred. Both academics and practitioners have started to question if the corporate governance has a responsibility in the fraud occurrence and which could be the most relevant factors that can induce fraudulent behaviors. This book has the aim to provide a deep analysis of the causes of the financial statement frauds, taking into account specifically the corporate governance systems in which the firms operate. Different cultural contexts, characterized by various governance models, are analyzed. An empirical analysis of the governance as a whole at first, and of the single governance mechanisms later, is conducted, providing interesting findings on the major governance lacks and failures that could lead to a financial statement fraud occurrence, or at least that could increase the likelihood of its occurrence.