Without an informed cognitive understanding of a transfer of learning strategies across disciplines learning autonomy of EFL/ESL will make little to no progress. The book, based on the exploratory study, offers a promising way to help learners become independent learners of EFL/ESL. The chapters in this book present an introduction of the study; thoroughly review of theoretical perspectives and empirical research involving metacognition theory, cognitive processes, metacognitive strategies and EFL/ESL autonomous learning; methodology; results; and discussions and suggestions. Learners striving for independence need detailed knowledge about metacognitive processes underlying learning. Likewise, teachers, researchers, and advanced students with a more cognitive or experimental background in EFL/ESL related disciplines, i.e., applied linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive linguistics, and education, need to make use of such applied knowledge. This book is also useful for those with a broad interest in learning independently, a control and transfer of their learning strategies metacognitively, and a-state-of-the art in the presentation of the quantitative and the text data analysis.