The ?rst goal of the livestock production is the delivery of safe foods for human consumption taking into account the welfare of the animal and respect for the environment. The poultry industry has become an important economic activity in many countries. In large-scale rearing facilities, where poultry are exposed to stressful conditions, problems related to diseases and deterioration of environmental conditions often occur and result in serious economic losses. Prevention and control of diseases have led during recent decades to a substantial increase in the use of veterinary medicines. However, the utility of antimicrobial agents as a preventive measure has been questioned, given extensive documentation of the evolution of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria. So, the possibility of antibiotics ceasing to be used as growth stimulants for poultry and the concern about the side-effects of their use as therapeutic agents has produced a climate in which both consumer and manufacturer are looking for alternatives. Probiotics are being considered to fill this gap and already some farmers are using them in preference to antibiotics.