The following dissertation attempts to deal with the subject of the unofficial Russian art of the 1960s and its avant - garde role in the development of Russian art as a whole as well as its intrinsic links with tradition and the first Russian Avant - Garde at the beginning of the 20th century. It consists of a brief history of Russian art for a better understanding of its historical links and European influences. It then approaches the first Russian Avant - Garde of the 20th century, mentions the reasons of its decline and triumph of Socialist Realism and explores the second Russian Avant - Garde of the 1960s. It studies works of the three important artists of the period whose examples were also used to show their milieu and the origins of the ideas of the Avant - Garde of the 1960s and to evoke the atmosphere of the period. The most significant art movements and groups of the 1960s and 1970s are also described. The role of the art of the 1960s is evaluated in the Conclusion. The terms and names in Italics are explained in the Glossary.