Under the 1995 Ethiopian Constitution the rights of National minorities of Ethiopia to a full measure of self-government including the right to secession have been recognized. This book has attempted to evaluate the scope of rights of national minorities as provided in the Federal Constitution. The nature and substance of the powers given to the federal government and the national minorities of Ethiopia has been examined. The federal set up gives extensive powers to the federal government leaving the Regional States with trivial powers. The House of Federation has been deprived of the power to propose laws and debate general policies at the federal level. This would make the powers of the Executive and the legislature unchecked. The national minorities have insignificant economic,social and financial powers. The right to ownership of rural and urban lands as well as all natural resources is exclusively vested in the Federal State.The centralized party structure has further undermined the constitutional division of powers. Ultimately, the national minorities in Ethiopia are left with too little political and financial powers to exercise their right to self-government.