The Basques and the Sami are two minority groups that are divided into several Western European States. The Basques are politically divided into the French and Spanish States. The Sami are politically divided into Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia.They inhabit opposite ends of the European continent but share many similarities in their history, language and present-day status.They have suffered the consequences of modern State building and Government policies which have affected their language and culture. The book provides an analysis of the Basque and Sami cultures and languages throughout history, the main political events that have influenced them, their current status and future prospects. It draws parallels and comparisons between Basque and Sami and investigates the present status of these languages through case studies conducted in Basque and Sami speaking areas.