In 1983, the government report, A Nation at Risk, emphasized the need for changes in the American education system to help students catch up to those in other countries. More than 25 years later, America continues to lag behind other countries. The summer break, that many American students experience, may be one factor that has played a role in the decline of students'' academic performance. Researchers have identified the summer break as having a substantial impact on skill retention. The need for more summer school programming has become a popular means to address the issue of underachievement, as well as to address the issue of summer learning loss. This book will review literature on the history, benefits, and challenges of summer school programs, as well as analyze the effectiveness of a current remedial summer school program that has been developed for underachieving middle school students. The information presented in this book will inform educators and parents of the potential impact the summer break may have on academic achievement, as well as inform school districts on how to develop effective summer school programs.