Since fossil fuels are running out, greenhouse gas emissions cause irreversible damage and electricity grids are unable to cope with the increasing energy demand, the current energy system of the Western societies are untenable. An energy transition is therefore inevitable. Central in the current energy transition debate is the concept of Smart Grids. This technology enables larger energy flows and the integration of renewable energy sources into the grids. The aim of the research is to analyze the current transition processes towards Smart Grids in the Dutch energy system, and to make projections about the energy transition considering Smart Grids in the Netherlands until 2050.