Refugees suffer the consequences of the triple burden of trauma, uprooting, and resettlement. This study aimed towards gaining a broader and more differentiated overview of the health status of a refugee population at the time of resettlement in Norway. Interviews of a nonclinical and a clinical population were performed, and a longitudinal perspective was added with a three-year follow up in Norway of the non-clinical group. These findings were compared with the interviews of a repatriated group in Bosnia. The study explored the relationship between psychosocial problems and pre-flight traumatic exposure. Protective effect of family network and employment/training on posttraumatic reactions in a traumatized refugee-population in exile was investigated as well as changes in symptom load. In the light of recent research on repatriation, the study underlines the necessity of providing proper health services, support, and coping strategies to traumatized refugees at an early stage.The ability to face the acute and long-term challenges of mass violence and its importance for future rehabilitation and integration as well as its impact on repatriation, are central issues.