The scope of this project includes thirteen selected pieces for violoncello (small pieces, unaccompanied and accompanied sonatas, and concerti) composed during the twentieth century, which hold a place of major importance in the literature on the instrument. The criteria for selection of these works are the new features they introduce to the cello as a solo instrument and the depth of influence they had among the musical societies and audiences at the time of their premieres. These features could be related to novel forms, unusual and novel techniques, frequency of performance, changes altering the sound qualities of the instrument, introducing new harmonic structures, reflecting national characteristics of a particular country, reflecting the political environment during the time of their composition, etc. The pieces are arranged according to their genre and year of composition, regardless of the composer''s nationality. The first chapter contains smaller pieces and unaccompanied and accompanied sonatas, and Chapter Two – concerti, or pieces with orchestral accompaniment of the same rank.