In most cases of violent conflicts around the world, civilians are normally targeted as a strategy of warfare,as such, suffer from all kinds of human rights violations including: rape, looting, torture and murder. The United Nations has been involved in more than 50 peacekeeping operations with varying degrees of successes since the end of the cold war. The UN's Mission in the Congo is its largest and one of the most challenged when it comes to protection of civilian. Specific questions motivated this book and have herein been closely examined,among others they include: How and why the United Nations got involved in the Congo? What factors influenced the extension and expansion of MONUC? How did MONUC acquire a protection role? What factors influenced MONUC’s ability to fulfil its protections role? Why did MONUC on many occasions abstain from using force to protect civilians under imminent threat of physical violence? This book is essential reading for students, scholars, policy-shapers, activists and general readers involved with how UN peacekeeping and its protection activities has been influenced, and how future forms can benefit by taking these into account.