The amniotic membrane is an easily accessible source for stem cells. The placenta is usually discarded after the birth of a baby and thus no ethical controversies are faced when isolating stem cells from this precious tissue. Therefore, amniotic epithelial cells, which have been approved for their stem cell characteristics, are ideal candidates for putative future clinical applications in regenerative medicine. The study of human oogenesis in vivo is impossible due to ethical considerations. Therefore, the development of an appropriate in vitro model for the study of human gametogenesis is of uppermost importance. In this book the use of amniotic epithelial stem cells in reproduction is being faced. The way to putative clinical applications of these promising cells is still long and stony, however intensive research in this fascinating field of reproductive sciences will finally shed light on the complicated processes underlying the source of life in the future.