This book attempts to explore vitality of local institutions of conflict resolution among the Afar of Samu Robi Woreda. Most academic literatures argue that local institutions in general and institutions of conflict resolution in particular are either integrated, co-opted or totally uprooted with the emergence of state run institutions. However, recent literatures refute this state-centric approach arguing that local institutions of conflict resolution are not always co-opted, rather they sustain their vitality besides the presence of state institutions. The viewpoint of the latter conception has fitted for the argument of this work to analyze and explore the vitality of local institutions of conflict resolution that has been used for long periods in study area. Hence, the basic argument of this book is that there is a continued vitality of the local institution of conflict resolutions, which are relevant in handling intra/inter clan conflict cases in the study area. Furthermore, this book has explored the changing nature of interaction between the Afar and their neighboring Amhara farmers since 1991, and the formation of a hybrid institution; JPC.