HIV/AIDS has continued to increase in most developing countries. In no part of the world has HIV/AIDS reached such pandemic proportions as in sub- Saharan Africa. Given existing poverty, AIDS campaigns in much of sub-Saharan Africa has geenrally focused on increasing AIDS awareness and reducing related risk behavior. These campaigns are premised upon western theories such as the Health Belief Model (HBM). At its core, the HBM assumes that if people have the correct knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions about HIV/AIDS, they will avoid associated risk behavior. This book examines the relevance of such theories to the fight against HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Specifically, the book explores why AIDS prevention programs based on such theories have not yielded the desired reduction in HIV prevalence rates in much of sub-Saharan Africa. The book concludes by examining how HIV/AIDS intervention in the developing world can be made more relevant to the particular cultural context in which they are being pursued. This analysis should be especially useful to people interested in understanding and addressing the problem of HIV/AIDS.