This thesis originates from the Surgical Research Unit, Regional Hospital Herning and Department of Vascular surgery, Regional Hospital Viborg, DK. The thesis is based on an overview and two papers. Background Atherosclerosis-related complications account for the largest group of deaths in the Western world, and Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is prevalent in 2/3 >55 years, especially in smokers. Summary of results The review shows that pharmacological management yet remains to be defined precisely. Statins showed the highest benefit and because of their dual benefits their importance for patients with IC is re-enforced. Both crossover studies showed that caffeine has potential benefits to improve physical performance: walking distance, strength and muscular endurance. Neither revascularization nor statins cure IC, so exercise is necessary and as increased walking distance is associated with QoL, caffeine can be a mean to improve their training possibilities and augment walking distance. How caffeine and training combines in practice and is implemented has to be explored to improve QoL for the growing number of IC patients.