Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) offers a very inexpensive and sensitive method of measuring atomic radiations. TLD are also used for radiation dose estimation in medical fields like in diagnostic radiology, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. The research on thermoluminescence may be useful to obtain some information on the elementary excitation mechanism. Mechanoluminescence (ML) is a type of luminescence induced by any mechanical action on solids. In the recent past the intense mechanoluminescent materials have been found to have the potential for the stress sensor, fracture sensor, damage sensor etc. This book provides information on the thermoluminescence and mechanoluminescence, their mechanism, theories and experimental detail on the ZnS nanoparticles doped with Mn. A very cost effective mechanoluminescent (ML) device to study the glow curves by fracture method is explained. The effect on TL and ML intensity with respect to particle size was studied. This book is very useful for those research scholars and the post graduate students who want to work on TL and ML of nanoparticles.