In 1919 the world turned its attention to Paris where the victorious Allied and Associated Powers would attempt to restore order after four and a half years of war. Poland re-gained her independence in November 1918, after over a century of foreign rule, and beyond the influence of the peacemakers. The First World War may have ended as the Second Polish Republic emerged, but in eastern Europe the fighting did not end. One group caught up in this maelstrom was the Jewish minority of Poland who appealed for support from both Allied statesmen and international Jewish organizations. The outcome was the Polish Minorities Treaty, signed the same day as the Treaty of Versailles, and leaving an equally notorious legacy.