This book is a first global collection on the innovative evolutionary science and emerging philosophy of feeding/eating timing as a feasible life strategy for optimum health and production of food-producing animals and humans. The book describes multifaceted dairy cow model experiments and delineates insights that are highly supported by intensively-housed and grazing cattle research data. Feeding Holstein cows at 2100 h instead of 0900 h altered post-feeding patterns of feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and in so doing, improved milk production and nitrogen status. Reduced fecal and urinary nitrogen wastages by evening feeding imply environmental benefits. Time of feeding is an interface of 1) evolutionary and 2) postmodern ruminant nutrition and human physiology and health.