Revision with unchanged content. During World War II, carrier fleets were the centerpiece of the American naval armada that ultimately crushed the Japanese Empire in the Pacific Theater. But when did aircraft carriers come to be used independently and offensively by the U.S. Navy? This study examines the maturation of American carrier-borne airpower during the interwar period. From 1929 to 1933, the U.S. Navy extensively tested the capabilities of carrier air power in major fleet exercises using their new, large carriers, Lexington and Saratoga. The Navy’s assessment of the exercises during this critical five-year period helped determine the course of carrier aviation for the remainder of the interwar period. How were the results of these exercises relayed to Congress and in order to secure further funding appropriations? How did the press cover these exercises? This book is intended for those interested in military history, naval or maritime history, and the history of technology.