The past two decades has witnessed the implementation of TQM as a management practice in libraries. TQM is a recent phenomenon to libraries of the developing world that are now beginning to apply it to managing their library systems. The quest for the application of TQM in these libraries has arisen the need to provide the theory and literature that will guide practice. Very little academic literature exists on how to apply TQM in libraries of the developing world. This work therefore, provides the impetus to bridge this knowledge gap and guidance for practice. TQM enables a holistic approach to focusing the manager's efforts at increasing the company's effectiveness by applying its proven methods. The target readership include; managers, library managers, health sciences librarians, administrators and students and faculty of library and the information science professions. The work reviews the development of TQM from industry to services and to the field of library science. It demonstrates Deming's philosophy of TQM and its application to library management. The challenges to achieving TQM and the suggestions and recommendations made offer useful lessons to all managers.