The crucial tourism decision-makers in Indonesia have pursued tourism growth and development with insufficient regard to its impact on local communities and the environment. This study explores a community-based approach to tourism development in Indonesia. In particular, it examines the extent and nature of local community participation during various stages of the tourism development process in three case studies in Bali, Yogyakarta, and Central Java. However, the regional government/military/commercial enterprises in the three case study tourism projects have prioritized economic interests over environmental interests. It is important to promote further study due to tourism development within a context of community and environmental responsibilities.