This study sought to determine the opportunities that have emerged after liberalization of production and marketing of cotton and to identify the specific challenges facing cotton production and marketing after liberalization in Magu District.The study was conducted in Magu District council which is one of the districts in the WGCA. Non probability sampling procedure was used. Interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data. The data was analysed by using SPSS. Besides the significant increase in cotton production, liberalization also resulted in significant increased market for cotton. This increase in the production and marketing of cotton is the result of the increased area of cultivated land on which farmers are choosing to grow more cotton rather than other crops; while at the same time cultivating new land for cotton production. This is in response to meeting the increased demand for cotton resulting from the larger number of buyers after the liberalization of the cotton sector. However, the liberalization of the cotton sector witnessed the deterioration of the quality of cotton produced.