The monography is addressing those who are interested in the processes occurring in cultural and pedagogical layers of a post-socialist society. The book attempts to show a correlation of national values with a reality. The relationship between theoretical reflections on Russian idea and Russian character as the abstract concepts of domestic philosophy with specific reality of origin and existence of school of the traditional culture (TrC) is traced, through their detection in national views on education. Such TrC school has set the task to focus attention not only on national content, but also on national forms of information transfer. The book represents both pedagogical experience about the organisation of Sunday TrC school on the basis of the local museum of natural history and practice of cooperation with a preschool centre. It is possible to say that this book reflects live search of thought about a more perfect educational system which would correspond to a national idea, or at least not contradict it.