In Ethiopia, about 98 % of milk production comes from the traditional production systems where milk handling and preservation methods are totally based on traditional practices. Besides,there are no modern preservatives and cooling techniques used in the system. Smallholder milk producers use different traditional storage and processing facilities. Plant materials are used for seasoning and fumigation of milk containers with the hypothesis to increase the shelf life of highly perishable dairy products such as milk, butter milk, cottage type cheese and butter. Among which butter is the most shelf stable product. Traditional ghee is another product which is made from butter by using various types of spices and it has average shelf life of a year with out the use of improved preservation techniques. Besides, these practices are believed to impart good flavors which are liked by the society. Hence, in this book attempt was made to assess these practices for further technological interventions. Moreover the microbial quality of milk collected from farm villages is substandard and it calls for public health concerns.