Teacher training programs have been developing in Nepal on experts’ perceptions rather than teachers’ need. Few attempts have been made to develop teacher training programs by adopting needs assessment procedure. This book discusses the concept and approaches of needs assessment. Also, it briefly overviews the development of teacher training programs in Nepal. This is an attempt to assess the needs of secondary school mathematics teacher and suggest the components to be incorporated into teacher training programs. The study result reveals that existing in-service training of secondary school mathematics teacher is inadequate to meet the needs of mathematics teachers and to face the new challenges. So, the training program needs to be improved. Training needs are of different areas, i.e. instructional planning; material preparation; innovative teaching methods; classroom management; conflict management; contextualization of subject matter; action research; remedial teaching; communication skills; need and interest identification; learning process; group work; student assessment; self-evaluation; updating; community skills; teaching particular contents of mathematics.