Petroleum feedstock serves as the primary source (>90%) of the world’s industrial organic chemicals, ranging from pharmaceuticals to agrochemicals to large-scale commodity products. Petroleum primarily consists of reduced hydrocarbons, and their selective oxidation chemistry remains a formidable challenge in chemical industry. So, Selective oxidation of organic molecules is a fundamental as well as practical challenge in modern chemistry. Hence, there is a need to develop efficient catalytic methods for different oxidation processes considering the principles of green chemistry. This book, therefore, primarily focused on the development and their potential application of various homogeneous catalytic oxidation systems. The introductory chapter highlights various important aspects around the transition metal catalyzed selective oxidation and hydrogenation processes which essentially develops the necessary platform of the work presented in the subsequent five chapters. This book certainly connects status and scope of homogeneous catalytic oxidation processes to someone who wants to pursue his/her career in this field.