Recent years have seen a burgeoning interest among scholars in the historical importance of translation, not least of the classics. For English readers, Gavin Douglas'' rendering of the Aeneid (1513) was the first ''true'' translation of that work: faithful to the original, but vigorous in a distinctive way. This monograph analyses in detail and depth how Douglas has translated his text: the nature of the shift he applies to Virgil. Dr Kendal tackles Douglas'' treatment of time, of space, of individuality, and of fate, relating the translator''s actual practice to his (sometimes quite misleading) theoretical reflections on the task, and assessing the translation''s legitimacy and value. The analysis provides a model which can be applied in appraising translations of other texts, and it will be of wide historical, conceptual and linguistic interest: to scholars working at the phenomenon of late-mediaeval and Renaissance translations; to contemporary specialists in translation studies; to students of Virgil and the classics generally; and to any readers who are interested in the development of Scots and English in modern times.