This book aims at elucidating the mode of transmission of Banana Streak Virus (BSV)by Mealy-bug species in Kenya and identifying any other putative vectors of BSV in samples collected from infected banana plantations. A novel DNA isolation protocol, Immunocapture PCR and Rolling Circle Amplification techniques were used in the study. The results revealed that the Paracoccus burnerae is a vector of the virus in banana plantations in Kenya. The vector acquires the virus after access feeding time of six hours during cool days. However, the vector could not acquire the virus during hot days.The BSV has no latent period but it has a retention period of four days in the vectors gut. Moreso, the results revealed that leafhoppers and aphids are not potential vectors of BSV. The results described in this book contribute immensely to the development of environmentally sound effective control strategies for BSV transmission.