Coal mining and coal combustion in generation of electricity produces various types of wastes such as, acid mine drainage (AMD) and fly ash(FA)that require a form of management and remediation. This book explores the fundamental chemistry of active and passive treatment of AMD with coal FA and the detailed geochemistry involved in the interaction of the two waste streams. The solid residues resulting from both treatment processes are further assessed as backfill materials in the coal mine voids in an attempt to develop an integrated management of the two waste streams.The success of the treatment process depends on several factors which include; FA: AMD ratio, the contact time of the reaction and the chemistry of the AMD. The solid residues (SR) generated from the treatment process are further assessed for passive treatment of AMD flows in a backfill scenario with interesting results.The book will be of interest to practitioners in a range of fields including environmental science, geochemistry, hydrogeology and waste management. The book can also be of interest to young researchers starting on their masters or honours projects on AMD and coal FA management.