In developing countries children experience repeated episodes of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI), treatment of these child illnesses still remains a challenge. This study seeks to investigate factors associated with the treatment of ARI and diarrhoea among children under-five years in Zambia based on nationally representative 2007 Zambia Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS) data. Determinants of treatment are varied, thus it is interesting to investigate which ones are, among the many determinants of treatment. On average, out of the total 909 (15.6%) and 1447 (22.6%) children who had diarrhea and ARI respectively two weeks prior the 2007 DHS, 32.5% and 34.3% did not receive any treatment for diarrhea and ARI respectively. This book reveals that the child’s and mother’s residence, father in the house, mother’s access to education and media health programs as well as health care resources are key determinants of child treatment.