This study examines the struggle against tuberculosis in the early Republican Turkey in the context of health policy. It explains that the population problem derived from the years between the Balkan Wars and the formation of the Republic. Medicine is discussed as political, and the dimensions of the regime’s intervention in social and daily domains are introduced. In 1930s Turkey, in the process of the formation of the nation-state, the improvement of the population qualitatively and quantitatively came onto the agenda, and methods on how to prevent population decrease are discussed. The physicians played roles in both the prevention of epidemic diseases, and public health education. Tuberculosis is handled as one facet of the epidemic diseases problem in the early Republican period, and it is explained that the policy developed in this period in the field of health was realized actually with also the intense efforts of voluntary societies due to the financial shortages of the state. Additionally, the normalization of the body through dealing with it in the social field and the inclusion of medicine within social control norms are revealed.