In 1949, when NATO was founded, twelve states were members, but today NATO is a 28 membered colossal defense organization and NATO members make 70 percent of the total military spending in the world. Although during the Cold War it had been a defense organization, after the September 11 attacks in 2001, the Article 5 was implemented for the first time in the history of the organization and the Alliance took the commandments of the ISAF units in Afghanistan over. In recent years, the impact of NATO forces in Libya operation, and the debates over what NATO can do in a possible operation in Syria indicate that NATO has had vast transformation since its establishment. The aim of this book is to discuss the role of Turkey within the historical transformation process of NATO and to discuss the increasing position of Turkey within NATO in the so called “New World Order” formed after the Soviet Union. The second aim is to discuss the effect of 9/11 and “war on terror” over NATO and Turkey.