This book deals with the United States’ policy towards the Caspian Sea region in general and the Turkey’s alternative proposal Baku-Ceyhan project in particular. This thesis consists of three different parts. In the first part, the concepts of idealism and realpolitik are explained within the framework of international relations. In the second part, the U.S. policy towards the Caspian region is dealt in an atmosphere where the unipolar world system arose after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The third part is devoted to the idea that the Caspian region and Central Asian States.